References

  1. World Health Organization. (n.d.). Coronavirus. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1.

  2. Fegert JM, Kehoe LA, Vitiello B, Karwautz A, Eliez S, Raynaud J-P, et al. COVID-19: services must remain active, we must communicate with networking partners and avoid further closure of psychiatric units. https ://www.escap.eu/index/coronavirus-and-mental-health/maintain-conta ct-with-patients-and-their-families-and-prevent-closure-of-services. 2020.

  3. Lissak G. Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: literature review and case study. Environ Res 2018;164:149-157

  4. Silver RC, Holman EA, Andersen JP, Poulin M, McIntosh DN, & Gil-Rivas V (2013). Mental- and physical-health effects of acute exposure to media images of the September 11, 2001, attacks and the Iraq War. Psychological Science, 24, 1623–1634. doi: 10.1177/0956797612460406

  5. Imran, N., Zeshan, M., & Pervaiz, Z. (2020, May). Mental health considerations for children & adolescents IN Covid-19 pandemic. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306970/#ref6.

  6. Kovler, M. L., Ziegfeld, S., Ryan, L. M., Goldstein, M. A., Gardner, R., Garcia, A. V., & Nasr, I. W. (2021, June). Increased proportion of physical child ABUSE injuries at a level I pediatric trauma center during the Covid-19 pandemic. Child abuse & neglect. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518108/.

  7. Peterman A., Potts A., Donnell M.O., Shah N., Oertelt-prigione S., Van Gelder N.…Thompson K. The Center for Global Development; 2020. Working paper 528 April 2020 pandemics and violence against women and children.

  8. Leaman L., Hennrikus W., Nasreddine A.Y. An evaluation of seasonal variation of nonaccidental fractures in children less than 1 year of age. Clinical Pediatrics. 2017;56(14):1345–1349. doi: 10.1177/0009922816687324.

  9. Berger R.P., Fromkin J.B., Stutz H., Makoroff K., Scribano P.V., Feldman K.…Fabio A. Abusive head trauma during a time of increased unemployment: A multicenter analysis. Pediatrics. 2011;128(4):637–643. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2185.

  10. Hoffman, J. A., & Miller, E. A. (2020, August 20). Addressing the consequences of school closure due To covid-19 on children's physical and mental well-being. World medical & health policy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461306/.

  11. Love, Hayley E. , Schlitt John, Soleimanpour Samira, Panchal Nirmita, and Behr Caroline. 2019. “Twenty Years of School‐Based Health Care Growth and Expansion.” Health Affairs 39 (4): 755–64.

  12. McFarland, Joel , Hussar Bill, Zhang Jijun, Wang Ke, Hein Sarah, Diliberti Melissa, Cataldi Emily Forrest, et al. 2019. The Condition of Education, 2019 (NCES 2019‐144). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education; https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2019144. Accessed April 17, 2020.

  13. Story, Mary . 2009. “The Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study: Findings and Policy Implications for Improving the Health of US Children.” Journal of the American Dietic Association109 (Suppl): S7–13. 10.1016/j.jada.2008.11.005

  14. Cohen, Juliana , and Schwartz Marlene B.. 2020. “Documented Success and Future Potential of the Healthy, Hunger‐Free Kids Act.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 120 (3): 359–62. 10.1016/j.jand.2019.10.021

  15. Institute of Medicine . 2013. Educating the Student Body: Taking Physical Activity and Physical Education to School. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; https://www.nap.edu/catalog/18314/educating-the-student-body-taking-physical-activity-and-physical-education. Accessed April 14, 2020.

  16. National Center for Homeless Children and Youth . 2020. Federal Data Summary, School Years 2015‐16 Through 2017‐18, Education for Homeless Children and Youth Greensboro, NC. https://nche.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Federal-Data-Summary-SY-15.16-to-17.18-Published-1.30.2020.pdf. Accessed April 17, 2020.

  17. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics . 2019. America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well‐Being, 2019. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; https://www.childstats.gov/pdf/ac2019/ac_19.pdf. Accessed April 18, 2020.

  18. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services . 2020. Child Maltreatment 2018. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services; https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment. Accessed April 18, 2020.

  19. Rasic D, Hajek T, Alda M, Uher R. Risk of mental illness in offspring of parents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of family high-risk studies. Schizophr Bull. 2014;40(1):28–38.

  20. Liu JJ, Bao Y, Huang X, Shi J, Lu L. Mental health considerations for children quarantined because of COVID-19. Lancet Child &Adolesc Health. 2020 doi:10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30096-1.

  21. Gifford-Smith ME, Brownell CA. Childhood peer relationships:social acceptance, friendships, and peer networks. J Sch Psychol. 2003;41(4):235–84.

  22. Lee J. Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020doi:10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30109-7.

  23. Bertelli OM, Scuticchio D, Bianco A, Buonaguro FE, Laghi F, Ghelma F, et al. Advices for managing the COVID-19 outbreak and the associated factors of mental distress for people with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder with high and very high support needs. Version 1.5. SIDiN (Italian Society for Neurodevelopmental Disorders)

  24. World Health Organization. (n.d.). Mental health: Strengthening our response. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-health-strengthening-our-response.

  25. Russell, B. S., Hutchison, M., Tambling, R., Tomkunas, A. J., & Horton, A. L. (2020, August 4). Initial challenges of caregiving during covid-19: Caregiver burden, mental health, and the parent–child relationship. Child Psychiatry & Human Development. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10578-020-01037-x.

  26. Juth V, Silver RC, Seyle DC, Widyatmoko CS, Tan ET (2015) Post-disaster mental health among parent–child dyads after a major earthquake in Indonesia. J Abnorm Child Psychol 43:1309– 1318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0009-8

  27. Greene CA, McCarthy KJ, Estabrook R, Wakschlag LS, Briggs- Gowan MJ (2020) Responsive parenting buffers the impact of maternal PTSD on young children. Parent: Sci Pract 20:141–165

  28. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nuture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological review, 101(4), 568.

  29. Fiese, B. H., Tomcho, T. J., Douglas, M., Josephs, K., Poltrock, S., & Baker, T. (2002). A review of 50 years of research on naturally occurring family routines and rituals: Cause for celebration?. Journal of family psychology, 16(4), 381.

  30. Glynn, L. M., Davis, E. P., Luby, J. L., Baram, T. Z., & Sandman, C. A. (2021). A predictable home environment may protect child mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Neurobiology of Stress, 14, 100291.

  31. Mental health by the numbers. NAMI. (n.d.). https://www.nami.org/mhstats.

  32. Dubowitz & Thompson & Arria & English & Metzger & Kotch (2016). (n.d.). Child maltreatment, 21(1). Child Welfare Information Gateway. https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/can/impact/long-term-consequences-of-child-abuse-and-neglect/health/.

  33. AbigailJHess. (2020, December 17). The U.S. still has 10 million fewer jobs now than before the pandemic. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/12/08/the-us-has-10-million-fewer-jobs-now-than-before-the-pandemic.html.

  34. Jljenniferliu. (2020, December 8). 1 in 3 workers had their pay cut during the pandemic, and women's salaries are taking longer to recover. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/12/08/1-in-3-workers-faced-pandemic-pay-cuts-but-recovery-is-uneven.html.

  35. Evans, G. W., & Wachs, T. D. (2010). Chaos and its influence on children’s development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Associati

  36. Tang, S., Xiang, M., Cheung, T., & Xiang, Y. T. (2021). Mental health and its correlates among children and adolescents during COVID-19 school closure: The importance of parent-child discussion. Journal of affective disorders, 279, 353-360.

  37. Nurturing care framework toolkit. Nurturing Care Framework for Early Childhood Development - Helping children SURVIVE and THRIVE. (2021, July 14). https://nurturing-care.org/nurturing-care-framework-toolkit/.

  38. Coronavirus cases: Worldometer. (n.d.). https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/.

  39. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2018, February 3). Depression (major depressive disorder). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/symptoms-causes/syc-20356007.

  40. Suicide and Teens: Boston Children's Hospital. Boston Childrens Hospital. (n.d.). https://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions/s/suicide-and-teens.